The Published Music of LEOPOLD GODOWSKY

By Leonard S. Saxe

Leopold Godowsky was born in the village of Soshly near Vilna (then Russian Poland) on February 13, 1870, and died in New York City on November 21, 1938. He began to compose when he was seven years old. When he first came to New York on October 31, 1884, he had already been before the public as a pianist Wunderkind for five years. He had just run away from the Berlin Hochschule fur Musik after spending four months there. His American debut occurred in Boston on December 7, 1884, with the Clara Kellogg Concert Company. Early the next year he appeared at the New York Casino, alternating weekly with Teresa Carreno. In 1886, he toured the northeastern United States and Canada with Ovide Musin, the Belgian Violinist. Later that year he returned to Europe, intending to study with Liszt, but Liszt's death led Godowsky to earn his living playing in the salons of London and Paris. There he became a protege of Saint-Saéns who wanted to adopt him legally.

When Godowsky returned to the United States in 1890, Alexander Lambert, Director of the New York College of Music, added him to the faculty there. His first pupil was Leonard Liebling. On May 1, 1891, shortly after reaching the age of twenty-one and the day after he had married a New York girl, Frederica Saxe, Godowsky became a citizen of the United States. In order to satisfy the five year residence requirement, the date of his first arrival in this country was evidently used.

In 1894-1895 he commuted to Philadelphia where he was Director of the 8 Piano Department of Gilbert Reynolds Combs' Broad Street Conservatory of Music. In 1895 Godowsky moved to Chicago where he remained until 1900 as head of the Piano Department of the Chicago Conservatory of Music, succeeding William H. Sherwood. There he developed his pedagogic theories of "weight and relaxation" in piano playing and gained repute as a teacher. His praises, as a pianist and composer were sung with enthusiasm by his friend H.S.B. Mathews in Mathews' magazine, "Music". Late in the nineties, after listening to the first set of Godowsky's 'Studies on Chopin’s Etudes', old Dr. William Mason marched into Schirmer's and insisted that the firm publish them — thus beginning that series of fifty-three remarkable, transcendental pieces whose composition ran over twenty years.

At a concert in Berlin on December 6, 1900, Godowsky presented himself to the test of European opinion, and attained such a phenomenal success that he was literally recognized overnight as one of the wor1d's great pianists and composers for the piano. He thereupon settled in Berlin until 1909, teaching privately and making annual concert tours of Europe and the Near East. For those tours, he composed during the summers such works as the 'Metamorphoses on Johann Strauss' Themes', the 'Renaissance' transcriptions, and the 'Walzermasken'.

From 1909 to 1914 he was Director of the Klaviermeisterschule of the Imperial Royal Academy of Music in Vienna, succeeding Emile Sauer and Feruccio Busoni. He toured the United States during the winters of 1912- — 1913, and 1913-1914, and at the outbreak of World War I returned to live in the United States. Because Godowsky thought that by taking the oath as kbnigliche und kaiserliche Professor in Austria he might have forfeited his United States' citizenship, he became naturalized for a second time in 1921. Meanwhile in 1912 he had begun his association as Editor in Chief of the Progressive Series of Piano Lessons, a piano teaching text for which W.S.B. Mathews had recommended him. That text and the accompanying edited exercises, studies and compositions occupied a substantial part of his time for the years ending in 1922, the year in which he gave his last concert in the United States. It was during this period that he composed the lyrical 'Triakontameron', which contains 'Alt Wien', the work by which he is best known.

After 1922, Godowsky deliberately devoted himself primarily, to com- posing for his chosen instrument, although he made concert tours in Europe and other places that interested him, such as Central and South America, the Near and Far East. The Far East gave him the inspiration for some of his loveliest music, the 'Java Suite'.

In June 1930 while Godowsky was in a London studio making a phono- graph recording, he suffered a stroke. He never played the piano again. Until his death, although his colleagues and pupils and myriads of personal friends worshipped him and his genius, he was a broken man and a tragic figure - a concert pianist who could no longer play the piano, a composer for the piano whose works were not widely appreciated. Yet Godowsky believed that after his death his compositions would be heard with growing frequency and that with those hearings would come appreciation and love for them. As a first step to the appreciation of Godowsky's music, it is my privilege to present a complete list of all his published compositions. Godowsky's composing may be divided roughly into four periods - the first, to 1893, juvenilia and developing years; from 1893 to 1912, a period of virtuosity and concert works; from 1912 to 1922, years in which his educ- ational works were stressed, including as such the 'Miniatures'; and finally the years from 1922 to 1930, the period of his reflective maturity. Throughout much of his life, Godowsky made many arrangements of piano pieces that appealed to him as of great beauty, but which he felt must be redone to take full advantage of the modern piano. Many were transcriptions of songs and orchestral works. He frequently wrote both original works1 and arrangements with a view to their addition to the literature for the ' concert pianist.

In composing, Godowsky was a traditionalist. But he developed tradition to the nth degree in its application to music for the piano. Completely familiar with all schools and styles he developed his own distinct idiom, including a new counterpoint for piano music. "Bach and Chopin", said Huneker. Although the intellectual mastery of his compositions has long been recognized, their poetic qualities remain almost unmentioned. And yet in everything he composed, Godowsky created beauty in music. I fervently hope that my list will help accelerate the inevitable recognition of that great and beautiful music.


(The publications have been arranged in three main groups, plus two smaller appendages.)* The main groups consist of Godowsky's Original Compositions, his Concert Paraphrases, Studies, Transcriptions and Arrangements, and finally his Educational Materials that he edited for the Art Publication Society in Saint Louis. A group of Cadenzas will be found at the end of the second main group, and the list ends with a section of Arrangements by others of works by Godowsky.

With only a few exceptions, the dates when the works were registered for copyright have been supplied. With the early English publications, these dates are those when the work was entered at Stationers' Hall in London, but after 1891 they are the dates of copyright registration in the United States Copyright Office. In only a few instances has it been necessary to give merely the year of publication.

In the group of Original Compositions, the works have been arranged chronologically, except where a part of parts of a series appeared at a later date, and in such instances the parts have been reassembled and entered under the date when the series was started. In the other groups, the dates of publication have been disregarded, and the works arranged alphabetically under the names of the composers on whose compositions Godowsky based his own. Within the last two main groups, there are minor modifications of this general rule which will become obvious on consulting the list. All compositions are for piano solo unless otherwise indicated. Unpublished compositions have not been included, except where their titles were entered as part of a series on the covers of published works, and in such instances it has seemed best to give the title, if only to specify that the prospective publication did not in fact appear.

To economise on space, the publishers appearing most frequently have been indicated by their surnames only. These surnames stand for the following firms:

Ascherberg = E. Ascherberg & Co., London.
Durand = A. Durand & Fils, Paris. 
Fischer = Carl Fischer, Inc., New York. 
Kleber = H. Kleber and Bro., L't'd., Pittsburgh.
Schirmer = G. Schimer, Inc., New York. 
Schlesinger = Schlesinger'sche Buch-und Musikhandlung (Robert Lienau), Berlin.
Schmidt = Arthur P. Schmidt, Boston. 


Moto perpetuo.  Ascherberg.  Februaiy 6, 1888.

Grande Valse—Romantique. Dedicated to Albert Weber Esq.  Ascherberg. July 11, 1888.

 Valse-Scherzo.  Dedicated by special permission to H.R.H. The Princess of
Wales.  Ascherberg. July11, 1888.

Harchen (Fairy Tale).  Dedicated to Mlles Douste de Fortis.  Ascherberg.July 11, 1888.

Moto Perpetuo.  A mon Oncle Léon Sachse. Durand. 1889; (Reissued:) Moto
perpetuo.  Dedié 5.  mon cher oncle Léon Sachse. London; 
E.Donajowski. Jan. 3, 1890. (See also 0p.13 below.)

Polonaise. A monsieur Eugene D'Albert. Durand. 1889.

Twilight Thoughts, Suite des Morceaux pour piano. Paris, Privately printed,1889.
1. Impressions sur le fleuve de Hudson; Hudson River. A Madame
Walden-Pell. (Revised and reissued as Op.14,no.1.)
 2. Une Nuit de printemps. A Madame Theron C. Crawford. (Announced,
but not published, as Op.15,no.2. Revised and published, as:
Fruhlingsnacht (A night in spring), Nocturne. St. Louis: Art 
Publication Society, Jan.25, 1915.)
3. Au jardin des fleurs. a Madame Léon Meunier.
4. Devotion (Unpublished).
5. Serenade. a Madame la Comtesse Ferdinand de Lesseps.
6. Réverie du soir (Unpublished).

Menuet, no.1, E major. Dedicated to Oscar J.Saxe Esq. Cincinnati: The
John Church Co. Oct.19,1891. (Included also in
 musical supplement to The Keynote, issue 122,Sept.1, 1891.) 

'Twas Eve and May; song, voice and piano, words by Lord Lytton. Dedicated ._
 to Miss Stella  D.Hays.  Kleber. July 9, 1894.

Does the harp of Rosa slumber? song, voice and piano, words by Lord Lytton. 
 Dedicated to Miss Ida Kleber.  Kleber.   Dec.3, 1894.

Op.11: Three Concert Studies.  Schirmer. Aug.14, 1899.
No.1. C major (grottesco). To Mr. Edward MacDowell
 No.2. C minor (Unpublished). ·
N0.3. E flat major. To Mr. Rafael  Joseffy.

Op.12: Schirmer. Aug.l4, 1899.
 No.1. Sarabande, C sharp minor. To Mr. W.S.B. Mathews. 
No. 2. Menuet, A flat major. To miss Blanche Dingley.
No.3. Courante, E minor. To Mr. G.H. Gittings. 

Op.13: Toccata (Perpetual Motion), G flat major. To Mr. Moriz Rosenthal.
Schmidt. Apr.5, 1899. (First published as Moto Perpetuo in 1890.)

Op.14: Schirmer. Aug.12—14, 1899. 
No.l. Ein Dammerungsbild (Twilight Musing) E flat major. To Mr.
Arthur Foote. (Revised from Twilight Thoughts, no.1.)
No.2. Mazurka melancolique (Unpublished).
No.3. Valse-Idylle, E major. A Madame la Comtesse Enrica Rozwadowska.
No.4. Scherzino, C sharp minor. To Mr. E.R.Kroeger. 

Op.15: Schmidt. Aug.29, 1899.
No.l. Mélodie meditative, E flat major. To Mrs. Frederica
Godowsky (nee Saxe). 
No.2. Nuit de printemps (Not published in this opus, but see
Twilight Thoughts, No.2, above.)
No.3. Capriccio, C minor. To Mr. Richard Burmeister.

Op.16: Schmidt. Aug 29, 1899.
No.1. Sérénade (Unpublished in this Opus, but see Twilight Thoughts,
no.5, above.
No.2. Arabesque, F major. A Mr. Adolph Devin-Duvivier. 
No.3. Reverie Russe (Unpublished in this Opus, as in Twilight
Thoughts, No.6, above.) .
No.4. Barcarolle-Valse, F major - A major. A Madame la Comtesse _
Ferdinand de Lesseps.

Sonate in E moll fur das Klavier. Meiner lieben Frau gewidmet.
Schlesinger. June 15, 1911.

Walzermaskenz 24 Tonfantasien im Dreivierteltakt fur Klavier. Herrn Dr.
Wilhelm Stekel  gewidmet.  Feb.12, 1912. (Besides the 4
fascicles,  the works marked* were also issued separately.) nb
Heft1: *1, Karneval, E major;  2, Pastell (Fr.Sch.) A major; 3, Skizze
(Joh.Br.), E major;  4, Momento capriccioso, C sharp minor; *5,
Berceuse, D flat major;  6, Kontraste, B flat minor. at
Heft2:  7, Profil (Fr.Ch.), B flat minor;  8, Silhouette (Fr.L.), 
F sharp minor-major;  9, Satire, B major;  10, Karikatur, G major;
11, Tyll Ulenspegel, F sharp major;  12, Legende, E flat minor. 
Heft 3: 13, Humoresque (uber 4 noten), B flat major; *14, Franzgsisch,
D major;  *15, Elegie, B minor;  *16, Perpetuum mobile, G major;
*17, Menuett, E flat major; *18, Schuhplatter, C major. 
Heft 4: 19, Valse macabre, C minor; 20, Abendglocken (Angelus),
A flat major (Zum 25 Todesdag von Franz Liszt, 31 Juli, 1911. Ischl.); 
21, Orientale, F minor;  *22, Wienerisch, F major;  24, Portrait
(Joh.Str.) G fiat major.

Twelve Impressions for Violin and Piano. To my dear friends Harriet and
Fritz Kreisler.  Violin parts fingered and phrased by Fritz Kreisler. Fischer. 
No.1. Larghetto lamentoso, B minor. Apr.14, 1916. (Arranged from
the 5th movement of Sonate in E minor; also used as one of the four
cello arrangements below.)  
No.2. Profile (Chopin), B minor. Oct.7, 1916. (Arranged from No.7'
of Walzermasken.)

nb: Ten of the "Twelve Impressions for Violin and Piano" and
three of the Four Impressions for Violoncello and Piano" 
 are based on these pieces. See also the final section of
"Arrangements by others on the works of Godowsky" for
orchestral  arrangements of No.19.

No.3. Legende, E minor. May 25, 1916. (Arranged from No.l2
 of Walzermasken.)
No.4. Tyrolean (Schuhplatter), C major. (Arranged from No.18
of Walzermasken.)
No.5. Poeme, (Andante Cantabile), C major. Feb.15, 1917. (Arranged
from 2nd movement of Sonate in E minor.)
No.6. Perpetuum mobile, G major. Oct.7, 1916. (Arranged from No.16
of Walzermasken.)
No.7. Elegie, B minor. Oct.7, 1916. (Arranged from No.15 of
Walzermasken;  also used as one of the four cello pieces below.)
No.8. Valse, D major. May 25, 1916. (Arranged from No.14 of Walzermasken.)
No.9. Valse macabre, B minor. May 25, 1916. (Arranged from No.19 of
Walzermasken; also used as one of the four cello arrangements below.
For orchestral arrangements by Rapee, see final section of this list.)
No.10. Orientale, E minor, Oct. 19, 1916. (Arranged from No. 21 of
Walzermasken; also used as one of the four cello arrangements below.)
No.11. Saga, A minor. Oct.7, 1916. (Arranged from No.23 of Walzermasken.)
No.12. Wienerisch, F major. May 25, 1916. (Arranged from No.22
of Walzermasken.)

Four Impressions for Violoncello and Piano. To my Dear Friends Harriet and
Fritz Kreisler. Violoncello parts phrased and fingered by Hans Kindler.
Fischer, Sept.15, 1917. (Arrangements of pieces in Twelve Impressions
for Violin and Piano, which see.)
Largetto lamentoso, B minor (1) 
Elegie, B minor (7)
Valse Macabre, B minor (9)
Orientale, E minor (10)

Miniatures, for piano, four hands, for teacher (secondo) and pupil (primo),
with preface and descriptive comments. In six volumes.  Fischer.
Unless otherwise indicated: Aug.22, 1918. nb
First Suite: No.1, In Church; No.2, At night; No.3, Lullaby;
No.4, Rustic dance. 
Second Suite: No.1, Arietta; No.2, Sarabande; No.3, Cradle song;
No.4, Bagatelle (Valsette).
Third Suite: No.1, Prelude (The organ point); No.2, Chorale;
No.3, Hymn; No.4, Epilogue (Retrospect).
Seven Ancient Dances: No.1, First Minuet (C major); No.2, Second
Minuet (G major); No.3, Rigaudon (see also below, arr. for two hands.);
No.4, Gavotte;  No.5, Bourrée. Sep.22, 1918; No.6, Siciliana; No.7,
Irish Jig.
Seven Modern Dances: No.1, Polka; No.2, Tyrolean (Landler); No.3,
Valse Elégiaque; No.4, Tarantella (Italy); No.5, Czardés (Hungary);
No.6, Mazurka (Chopinesque);  No.7, Polonaise (All black keys).
Miscellaneous:  No.l, Serenade; No.2, The Miller's song (also arr. for
2 hands, see below); no.3, Meditation;  No.4, Pastorale (Angelus); No.5,
The exercise; No.6, Processional march.  Aug.16, 1918 (also arr. for
2 hands, see below);  No.7, Scherzo;  No.8, Arabian chant (Orientals).
Sept.22, 1918 (also arr. for 2 hands, see below);  No.9,  Albumblatt
(Intermezzo);  No. 10, Funeral march; No.11, Plaintive melody. Aug.16, 1918;
No.12, Ballade; No.13, Nocturne; No.14, Barcarolle; No.15, Homoresque
(also arr. for 2 hands, see below); No.16, Toccatina, Aug.16, 1918;
No.17, Impromptu (In days of Yore). Aug.16, 1918; No.18, The Scholar
(Fughetta).  Aug.16, 1918; No.19, Thee hunter's call (Woodland mood).
Aug.16, 1918; No.20, Military March. Aug 16, 1918. 

nb: See Maurice Aronson: A key to the Miniatures of Leopold Godowsky
(New York: Carl Fischer Inc., 1935), for analytical essays on 
these 46 pieces. The first three suites were issued in three
 fascicles; the remaining suites have the name on the title page
to distinguish them, but each number was printed separately. At
some later date, but before 1927, the 'Miniatures‘ were made 
available in an edition in six volumes.

Miniatures for piano solo. Fischer.
No.l, Homoresque. To Alexander Lambert. Sept.14, 1918. (From
Miscellaneous, No.15.) 
No.2, Rigaudon. Sept,14, 1918. (From Seven Ancient Dances, No.3.)
No.3, The Miller's song. Aug.16, 1920(From Miscellaneous No.2.)
No.4, Processional march. Aug.26, 1920. (From Miscellaneous N0.6.)
No.5, Arabian Chant (0rientale). Aug.26, 1920. (From Miscellaneous No.8.)

Triakontameron, Thirty moods and scenes in triple measure. In six vo1umes*.
Schirmer, May 19, 1920.
Volume I: No.l, Nocturnal Tangier+ (See final section of list under
Arrangements);  No.2, Sylvan Tyrol+ (See final section of list under.
Arrangements); No.3, Paradoxical Moods; No.4, Rendezvous`; No 5,
Twilight Phantasms.
Volume II: No.6, The Pleading Troubador;  No.7, Yesteryear;  No.8,
A Watteau Paysage;  No.9, Enchanted Glen;  No.10, Resignation. 
Volume III: No.11, Alt-Wien ("Whose yesterdays look backwards with
a smile through tears") (See final section of list under arrangements);
No.12, Ethiopian Serenade;  No.13, Terpsichorean Vindobona+ (See final
section of list under arrangements); No.14, Whitecaps;  No.15, The
Volume IV: No.16, An Old Ballade; No.17, An American Idyll; No.18, 
Anachronisms;  No.19, A Little Tango Rag; No.20, Whirling Dervishes (See
final section of list under arrangements).
Volume V: No.21, The Salon;  No.22, An Epic;  No.23, The Music Box;
No.24, Lullaby (See final section of list under arrangements).
No.25, Memories.
Volume VI: No.26, The Cuckoo C1ock+; 'No.27, Lament+; No.28, Quixotic
Errantry; No.29, Poems Macabre; No.30, Requiem (1914-1918)   Epilogue.nb

Triakontameron, N0.11: Alt Wien (Old Vienna) arr. for two pianos. To
Vera Brodsky and Harold Triggs.  Schirmer. June 21, 1935.

Phonoramas, Tonal Journeys for the pianoforte. (Series title for:) 
Java Suite, Twelve pieces in four parts, with preface, addendum,
and descriptive notes.   To my  friend J. Cambell  Phillips. Aug.20, 1925.
Part I: No.l, Gamelan;  No.2, Wayang Purwa (Puppet shadow plays);
No.3, Hari Besaar (The Great Day.)
Part II: No.4, Chattering Monkeys at the Sacred lake of Wendit; No.5,
Boro Budur in Moonlight; No.6, Bromo Volcano and the Sand Sea at Daybreak
Part III: No.7, Three Dances; No.8, The Gardens of Buitenzorg;  No.9, 
In the Streets of Old Batavia.
Part IV: No.10, In the Kraton; No.11, The Ruined Water Castle at
Djokja; No.12, A Court Pageant in Solo.

Poems for the Pianoforte. Fischer.
Devotion (Poem No.1). Dec.21, 1927
Avowal (Poem No.2). Dec.21, 1921
Adoration (Poem No.3) Dec.21, 1927
Yearning (Poem No.4) Jan. 7, 1932.
(There are a further two poems, unpublished.  The composer had intended
issuing the six with a dedication to Paul Howard. Ed.) 

Avowal (Poem No.2 ), for violin and piano. The violin part phrased
and fingered by Leo. Godowsky, Jr. For Mischa  Elman. Fischer.
Apr.24, 1929. 

Passacaglia. (Forty-four variations, Cadenza and Fugue, based on the first
eight measures of Schubert's Unfinished Symphony; tribute on the one
hundredth anniversary of the death of Schubert). Fischer, Jan.6, 1928. 

{Each number also available separately. The numbers with a cross (+)
have been arranged for orchestra by Hans Bernstein, and the parts
available for rental. 
nb: The "Epilogue" is an elaborate version of "The Star Spangled 
Banner", and with a quiet introductory phrase added, is identical
to the Concert Version of the anthem published the following year.

*Waltz, Poem No.1, G Major, for violin and piano, phrased and fingered for
	violin by Leo Godowsky, Jr.  For Jascha Heifetz. Fischer. Apr.17, 1929.
Waltz Poem No.2, A major, for violin and piano, phrased and fingered for
violin by Leo Godowsky Jr. For Paul Kochanski. Fischer. Apr.17, 1929.

Waltz Poem No.1, G major, for piano, two hands. To Edward W. Burnshaw, Jr.
Fischer. Apr.24, 1929.
Waltz Poem IV, E major, for piano, two hands. To Saumel E. Stein.
  	Fischer. June 7, 1930.
Waltz Poem No.2, A major, for piano, two hands. To Dorothy Wanderman.
 	Fischer. Apr.24, 1929. 

Waltz-Poems for the left hand alone. To Carl Engel. Fischer. June 7, 1930.
Waltz—Poem I, G flat major.
 Waltz-Poem II, B flat major.
Waltz-Poem III, G major
Waltz-Poem IV, E flat major
Waltz-Poem V, A flat major.
 Waltz-Poem VI, C major.

Prelude and Fugue (B.A.C.H.) for the left hand alone, F major. To Arthur 
Loesser. Schirmer, Mar.18, 1930.

 Meditation, for the left hand alone, E flat major. To Dimitri Tiomkin.
Schirmer. May 27, 1930.

Meditation, for two hands. To Dimitri Tiomkin. Schirmer. June 20, 1930.

 Etude macabre, for the left hand alone, D minor. To Emile R. Blanchet.
Schirmer. June 20, 1930
Etude macabre, for both hands. To Emile R. Blanchet. Schirmer. June 20, 1930.

Impromptu, for the left hand alone, E flat minor. To Josef Lhevinne.
 Schirmer. June 20, 1930.

Impromptu, for both hands. To Josef Lhevinne. Schirmer, June 20, 1930.

Suite for the Left Hand Alone, D major and minor. (Allemand, Courante,
 Gavotte, Sarabande, Bourree, Sicilienne, Menuet, Gigue.) To Isidore
 Philipp. Schirmer. June 20, 1930.

Gigue, from the 'Suite for the Left Hand Alone', arr. for both hands.
 To Isidore Philipp. Schirmer. Apr.12, 1937.
Menuet, from the 'Suite for the Left Hand Alone', arr. for both hands.
To Isidore Philipp. Schirmer. Apr.l2, 1937.

Intermezzo (Melanconico), for the left hand alone, E major. To Alexander
 Siloti. Schirmer. May 26, 1931.

 Intermezzo (Melanconico), for both hands. To Alexander Siloti. Schirmer.
May 26, 1931.

 Elegy, for the left hand alone, B minor. To Gottfried Galston. Schirmer.
 Dec. 24, 1931.

Elegy, for both hands. To Gottfried Galston. Schirmer. Dec.24, 1931.

 Capriccio (Patetico), for the left hand alone, C sharp minor. To Ernest
 Hutcheson. Schirmer, Dec. 24, 1931.

Capriccio (Patetico),for both hands . To Ernest Hutcheson. Schirmer.
 Dec.24, 1931.

*When the series of Waltz-Poems was extended the following year in
 versions for the left hand alone, the music of Waltz-Poem No.1 was
 used for Waltz-Poem1I, but the Waltz-Poem No.2 became Waltz-Poem V.
At this same\ later date, the above version of the Waltz-Poem IV `
 for piano was issued.


*Only the original compositions are being included in this Newsletter — . the other groups will be included in following issues. Ed.